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Paradigm shift in brain formation research

開催日 2014/9/13
時間 15:00 - 17:00
会場 Room D(503)
Chairperson(s) 河崎 洋志 / Hiroshi Kawasaki (金沢大学医薬保健研究域 脳・肝インターフェースメディシン研究センター分子神経科学部門 / Department of Biophysical Genetics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Japan)
松﨑 文雄 / Fumio Matsuzaki (理化学研究所 発生・再生科学総合研究センター / Laboratory for Cell Asymmetry, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Japan)

The role of birth in the development of sensory systems

  • S3-D-1-5
  • 河崎 洋志 / Hiroshi Kawasaki:1 
  • 1:金沢大学医薬保健研究域 脳・肝インターフェースメディシン研究センター分子神経科学部門 / Dept of Biophys Genet, Grad Sch of Med Sci, Kanazawa Univ, Japan 

Although the mechanisms underlying the spatial pattern formation of sensory maps in the brain have been extensively investigated, those triggering sensory map formation during development are largely unknown. Because a whisker-related pattern of barrel in the somatosensory cortex is formed soon after birth, we hypothesized that birth itself is the trigger for initiating the formation of a whisker-related pattern of barrels. Here we show that the birth of pups instructively and selectively regulates the initiation of somatosensory map formation in the brain by reducing serotonin concentration. We found that preterm birth accelerated somatosensory map formation, while it did not affect whisker lesion-induced barrel structural plasticity. We also found that serotonin was selectively reduced soon after birth, and that the reduction of serotonin was triggered by birth. The reduction of serotonin was necessary and sufficient for the effect of birth on somatosensory map formation. Interestingly, the regulatory mechanisms described here were also used in the visual system. Eye-specific segregation of retinogeniculate projections was enhanced by preterm birth and serotonin inhibition, suggesting that the mechanisms we found are utilized in various brain regions. Our results shed light on hitherto unidentified roles of birth and serotonin in sensory map formation during development.

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