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Olfactory and Auditory system

開催日 2014/9/13
時間 9:00 - 10:00
会場 Room J(313+314)
Chairperson(s) 山口 正洋 / Masahiro Yamaguchi (東京大学大学院医学系研究科 細胞分子生理学教室 / Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Japan)
風間 北斗 / Hokuto Kazama (独立行政法人 理化学研究所 脳科学総合研究センター 知覚神経回路機構研究チーム / Laboratory for Circuit Mechanisms of Sensory Perception Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Japan)

Function of nonclassical class I MHC genes in the mouse vomeronasal organ

  • O3-J-1-1
  • 石井 智浩 / Tomohiro Ishii:1,2 Leinders-Zufall Trese / Trese Leinders-Zufall:3 Zufall Frank / Frank Zufall:3 Mombaerts Peter / Peter Mombaerts:2 
  • 1:東京医歯大・医歯総合・細胞生物 / Dept Cell Biol, Tokyo Med Dent Univ, Tokyo, Japan 2:Max Planck Research Unit for Neurogenetics, Frankfurt, Germany / Max Planck Research Unit for Neurogenetics, Frankfurt, Germany 3:Dept Physiol, Univ of Saarland School of Medicine, Homburg, Germany / Dept Physiol, Univ of Saarland School of Medicine, Homburg, Germany 

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) in the mouse nasal cavity contains a specialized chemosensory neuroepithelium and has a pivotal role in chemical communication. The vomeronasal sensory neuroepithelium consists of distinct populations of vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). A subset of VSNs, with cell bodies in the basal part of the basal layer, coexpress Vmn2r G-protein-coupled receptor genes with H2-Mv genes, a family of nine nonclassical class I major histocompatibility complex genes. The in vivo, physiological roles of the H2-Mv gene family remain mysterious more than a decade after the discovery of combinatorial H2-Mv gene expression in VSNs. Here, we have taken a genetic approach and have deleted the 530 kb cluster of H2-Mv genes in the mouse germline by chromosome engineering. Homozygous mutant mice (ΔH2Mv mice) are viable and fertile. There are no major anatomical defects in their VNO and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Their VSNs can be stimulated with chemostimuli (peptides and proteins) to the same maximum responses as VSNs of wild-type mice, but require much higher concentrations. This physiological phenotype is displayed at the single-cell level and is cell autonomous: single V2rf2-expressing VSNs, which normally coexpress H2-Mv genes, display a decreased sensitivity to a peptide ligand in ΔH2Mv mice, whereas single V2r1b-expressing VSNs, which do not coexpress H2-Mv genes, show normal sensitivity to a peptide ligand in ΔH2Mv mice. Consistent with the greatly decreased VSN sensitivity, ΔH2Mv mice display pronounced deficits in aggressive and sexual behaviors. Thus, H2-Mv genes are not absolutely essential for the generation of physiological responses, but are required for ultrasensitive chemodetection by a subset of VSNs.

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