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Sensory-input dependent refinement of neural circuits

開催日 2014/9/12
時間 15:00 - 17:00
会場 Room G(303)
Chairperson(s) 久場 博司 / Hiroshi Kuba (名古屋大学大学院医学系研究科細胞生理学 / Department of Cell Physiology, Nagoya University, Japan)
宮田 麻理子 / Mariko Miyata (東京女子医科大学・医学部・第一生理学教室 / Department of Physiology,Tokyo Women's Medical University, Japan)

Gene therapy using channelrhodopsins for restoring vision

  • S2-G-1-5
  • 冨田 浩史 / Hiroshi Tomita:1,2 菅野 江里子 / Eriko Sugano:1 田端 喜多子 / Kitako Tabata:1 西山 史朗 / Fumiaki Nishiyama:1 村山 奈美枝 / Namie Murayama:1 高橋 麻紀 / Maki Takahashi:1 斎藤 健彦 / Takehiko Saito:1 玉井 信 / Makoto Tamai:3 
  • 1:岩手大工応化・生命 / Dept of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Iwate University, Morioka, Japan 2:東北大学病院臨床研究推進センター / Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital, Japan 3:東北大院医 / Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Japan 

Gene therapy using channelrhodopsins for restoring vision
Hiroshi Tomita1,2, Eriko Sugano1, Kitako Tabata1, Fumiaki Nishiyama1, Namie Murayama1, Maki Takahashi1, Takehiko Saito1, Makoto Tamai3.
1 Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Iwate University Graduate School of Engineering
2 Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital
3 Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine

Degeneration of photoreceptor cells leads to blindness, even in the case of survival of other retinal neurons. Indeed, inner retinal neurons such as bipolar, horizontal, and ganglion cells survive in the retina of patients with retinitis pigmentosa. ChR2, which is derived from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a microbial-type rhodopsin. Microbial rhodopsins are 7-transmembrane proteins like retinal rhodopsin, containing all-trans-retinal, and not 11-cis-retinal, as the chromophore. In vertebrate retina, phototransduction is initiated by activation of rhodopsin. In the dark, rhodopsin contains 11-cis-retinal as the chromophore, embedded in its protein moiety. Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal initiates a G protein-coupled signaling cascade. On the other hand, ChR2 is capable of directly forming ion channels and functions as a light-driven cation-selective channel. The reaction occurring with ChR2 after absorption of photons is completely different from that occurring with vertebrate rhodopsin. The function of ChR2 offers a possibility that ChR2 expression in the degenerated retina may restore their vision for the patients with retinitis pigmentosa. In this symposium, we'll introduce visual functions of genetically blind rats recovered by an adeno associated virus mediated gene therapy using ChR2 and modified VChR1.

Grant: NIBIO(10-06), KAKENHI(24390393)

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