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視覚 2
Visual System 2

開催日 2014/9/11
時間 17:00 - 18:00
会場 Room G(303)
Chairperson(s) 七五三木 聡 / Satoshi Shimegi (大阪大学大学院医学系研究科 / Graduate School of Medecine, Osaka University, Japan)
小松 英彦 / Hidehiko Komatsu (自然科学研究機構 生理学研究所 / National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Japan)

Nonlinear mechanisms for motion-in-depth selectivity in macaque area MT

  • O1-G-2-2
  • 眞田 尚久 / Takahisa M Sanada:1,2 ディアンジェリス C. グレゴリー / Gregory C. DeAngelis:3 
  • 1:自然科学研究機構 生理学研究所 / National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Aichi, Japan 2:総合研究大学院大学 / The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Aichi, Japan 3:ロチェスター大学 視覚科学研究所, ロチェスター市, アメリカ合衆国 / Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, NY, USA 

We operate in the three-dimensional (3D) environment in which objects move in depth, thus estimating the 3D motion of objects is important for many everyday activities. Neural processing of visual image motion within the fronto-parallel plane has been studied extensively (Andersen, 1997, Born and Bradley, 2005), however, relatively little is known about how cortical neurons compute object motion in depth. There are two binocular cues to motion-in-depth: change in horizontal disparity over time (CD) and interocular velocity differences between the two eyes (IOVD). Psychophysical studies have demonstrated that both IOVD and CD cues contribute to perception of motion-in-depth (Cumming and Parker, 1994, Harris et al., 2008). We recently reported selectivity for the direction of motion-in-depth (approaching vs. receding) in macaque area MT. This selectivity is driven primarily by the IOVD cue with a small contribution of the CD cue. In this study, we explored the neural mechanisms that underlie selectivity for motion-in-depth based on IOVD and CD cues. To explore the mechanism for coding IOVD cues, we measured interocular speed interaction profiles by presenting motion stimuli having all 64 combinations of 8 speeds presented to each eye. A weighted sum of monocular responses generally fit the speed interactions well, but the weights were not predictable from the ocular dominance of each neuron. To test the mechanism for coding CD cues, disparity-time maps were measured using reverse correlation. A tilted response profile in the disparity-time maps generally predicted selectivity for motion-in-depth based on CD cues. These experiments reveal distinct mechanisms by which single neurons in area MT signal motion in depth based on IOVD and CD cues.

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