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Reward and Motivation

開催日 2014/9/12
時間 17:10 - 18:10
会場 Room H(304)
Chairperson(s) 松元 健二 / Kenji Matsumoto (玉川大学脳科学研究所 / Tamagawa University Brain Science Institute, Japan)
髙橋 英彦 / Hidehiko Takahashi (京都大学大学院医学研究科脳病態生理学講座精神医学教室 / Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medecine, Japan)

Disability to Modulate Risk Attitude in Pathological Gambling

  • O2-H-5-2
  • 藤本 淳 / Atsushi Fujimoto:1 高橋 英彦 / Hidehiko Takahashi:1 
  • 1:京都大学 / Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Japan 

Patients with pathological gambling (PG) tend to continue gamble in spite of negative experiences and then provoke tragic consequences such as bankruptcy or family breakdown. Such puzzling risk-seeking in PG patients is considered to be based on the distorted cognition so-called 'chasing', in which patients believe that the only way to recover financial loss is continuing gamble. Although many studies investigated the biased cognition in PG, the critical mechanism remains elusive.
To elucidate the mechanism of 'chasing' from novel aspect, we tested the ability to modulate risk attitude depending on the quota severity in the PG group (n=21) as well as in the healthy control (HC) group (n=29) using a newly-developed gambling task under fMRI scanning. In this task, participants were required to choose between risky and safe options on every trial and achieve stage-quota that was assigned from 7 different levels in advance to each stage. Hence, participants needed to truck remaining point and trial number (trial-quota) and utilize sure and risky choices flexibly to maximize the chance of stage clear.
The HC group tended to take sure (high expected-value) options when trial-quota was moderate and take risky (high magnitude) options when trial-quota was severe, suggesting quota-dependent modulation of risk attitude in healthy population. The PG group, on the other hand, chose risky option frequently when trial-quota was moderate, suggesting that PG patients had less ability to modulate risk attitude toward current quota adaptively. Thus, 'chasing' might be partially induced by inappropriate risk-taking due to disability of quota-dependent behavioral modulation.
We also conducted fMRI experiments during task execution and showed that several areas including the dorsal anterior cingulate, insula and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex reflected quota severity in HC group. This correlation was attenuated in PG group, implicated the neural bases of disability to modulate risk attitude depending on quota. Altogether, our results would reveal the mechanisms underlying 'chasing' in PG patients, and potentially provide new therapeutic target to recover ability to modulate risk attitude depending on the quota severity.

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