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Brain oscillations in its physiology and pathophysiology

開催日 2014/9/11
時間 9:00 - 11:00
会場 Room C(502)
Chairperson(s) 池田 昭夫 / Akio Ikeda (京都大学大学院医学研究科 てんかん・運動異常生理学講座 / Department of Epilepsy, Movement Disorders and Physiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan)
美馬 達哉 / Tatsuya Mima (京都大学大学院医学研究科附属脳機能総合研究センター / Human Brain Research Center, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan)

Neural oscillation activity from neuron, neuron population to cerebral cortices as the physiological and pathological basis

  • S1-C-1-1
  • 池田 昭夫 / Akio Ikeda:1 
  • 1:京都大学大学院医学研究科 てんかん・運動異常生理学講座 / Department of Epilepsy, Movement Disorders and Physiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan 

For the analysis of brain function of normal and abnormal state, signal activity from extremely slow activity to high frequency activity is targeted. 1) It could utilize various methodologies from neurophysiology to neuroimaging, 2) it could target the functions from normal brain to abnormal state due to disease condition, 3) it involves wide rage of the investigators from basic scientists, human brain scientists to clinical researchers.
Translatability between the different two sides for each domain is essential to enhance the understanding of the fundamental basis and its individual variability in neuroscience as follows.
1)From neurophysiology to neuroimaging: In neurophysiology, neural oscillation is usually well recorded as local field potentials (LFPs). It represents the summation of postsynaptic potentials occurring in the cortical layers. From clinical point of view, clinical EEG in the 20th century used to record rather limited range of frequency activity from delta to gamma activity but did not exceed down to < 1Hz or up to > 100Hz. With much higher sampling rate of > 1K or 2K Hz in the digital EEG equipment, high frequency activity such as ripple or fast ripple activity are well recorded not only by microelectrodes (Le Van Quyen et al, 2008) but also by macroelectrode such as subdural or depth electrode in humans. It could represent the synchronous action potential firing of a group of principal cells (Jefferys et al, 2012). By opening low frequency filter of AC amplifier down to 10 sec, it could also record very slow shifts or baseline shifts. By means of functional MRI (fMRI) in human brain function, resting state fMRI could delineate the inter-areal network for independent normal higher cortical function.
2)From normal brain function to disease condition: Higher cortical function such as motor control, memory, language, recognition are reportedly closely related to HFO in LFP and in neuroimaging study. In epileptogenic zone in animals and humans, both HFO and slow shift activity may provide the essential information as surrogate markers (Kanazawa et al., 2014). In stroke, slow shift as spreading depolarization could delineate the extent of ischemic area more precisely (Drenckhahn et al., 2012). It is supported by KAKENHI (26293209).

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