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Neural mechanism of voluntary movement and development of therapeutic approach

開催日 2014/9/11
時間 14:00 - 16:00
会場 Room B(501)
Chairperson(s) 山下 俊英 / Toshihide Yamashita (大阪大学大学院 医学系研究科 分子神経科学 / Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Japan)
星 英司 / Eiji Hoshi (東京都医学総合研究所 前頭葉機能プロジェクト / Frontal Lobe Function Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Japan)

Role of the cortico-basal ganglia networks in the generation of goal-directed action

  • S1-B-2-3
  • 星 英司 / Eiji Hoshi:1 
  • 1:東京都医学総合研究所 / Frontal Lobe Function Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Japan 

Action is often executed according to information provided by a visual signal. Based on a framework derived from conditional visuomotor association, prior studies have identified neural mechanisms in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and basal ganglia (BG). However, applications resting solely on this conceptualization encounter problems related to generalization and flexibility, essential processes in executive function, because the association mode involves a direct one-to-one mapping of each visual signal onto a particular action. To overcome this problem, we extend this conceptualization and postulate a more general framework, conditional visuo-goal association. According to this new framework, the visual signal identifies an abstract behavioral goal, and an action is subsequently selected and executed to meet this goal. Neuronal activity recorded from the four key areas of the brains of monkeys performing a task involving conditional visuo-goal association revealed three major mechanisms underlying this process. First, visual-object signals are represented primarily in the vlPFC and BG. Second, all four areas are involved in initially determining the goals based on the visual signals, with the dlPFC and PMd playing major roles in maintaining the salience of the goals. Third, the cortical areas (dlPFC, vlPFC, and PMd) play major roles in specifying action, whereas the role of the BG in this process is restrictive. These new lines of evidence reveal that the four areas involved in conditional visuomotor association contribute to goal-directed behavior mediated by conditional visuo-goal association in an area-dependent manner.

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