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Optogenetics and Optical Methods

開催日 2014/9/11
時間 9:00 - 10:00
会場 Room H(304)
Chairperson(s) 松井 広 / Ko Matsui (東北大学大学院医学系研究科・新医学領域創生分野 / Division of Interdisciplinary Medical Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan)
木村 幸太郎 / Kotaro Kimura (大阪大学大学院理学研究科生物科学専攻 / Department of Biological Sciences, Osaka University, Japan)

線虫C. elegansの匂い応答行動における意思決定のための神経メカニズム ―統合型顕微鏡システムによる解析
Neuronal mechanisms of decision making in C. elegans olfactory behavior revealed by a highly integrated microscope system

  • O1-H-1-4
  • 谷本 悠生 / Yuki Tanimoto:1 山添 萌子 / Akiko Yamazoe:1 藤田 幸輔 / Kosuke Fujita:1 川添 有哉 / Yuya Kawazoe:1 宮西 洋輔 / Yosuke Miyanishi:1 山崎 修平 / Shuhei J Yamazaki:1 安藤 恵子 / Keiko Gengyo-Ando:2 中井 淳一 / Junichi Nakai:2 費 仙鳳 / Xianfeng Fei:3 岩崎 唯史 / Yuishi Iwasaki:4 橋本 浩一 / Koichi Hashimoto:5  木村 幸太郎 / Kotaro Kimura:1 
  • 1:大阪大院理生物科学 / Dept. Biol. Sci., Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan 2:埼玉大学 研究機構 脳末梢科学研究センター / Brain Sci. Inst. Saitama Univ. Saitama, Japan 3:東北文化学園大学 科学技術学部 知能情報システム学科 / Dept. Intel. Inf. Syst., Fac. Sci. Tech., Tohoku Bunka Gakuen Univ., Sendai, Japan 4:茨城大学 工学部 知能システム工学科 / Dept. Intel. Syst. Eng, Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki, Japan 5:東北大学 情報科学研究科 システム情報科学専攻 / Dept. Syst. Inf. Sci., Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan 

The nervous system of animals transforms dynamically changing sensory information from the environment into appropriate behavioral responses. In particular, olfactory information plays critical roles in adaptive behaviors in the form of long- and short-range chemical cues that encode spatiotemporal information and chemical identity. To elucidate the neuronal mechanisms underlying olfactory behavior, it is desirable to quantify behaviors and neural circuit activities under realistic olfactory stimulus. However, reproducing realistic spatiotemporal patterns in odor concentrations is challenging due to diffusion, turbulent flow, and measurability of odor signals. We have developed an integrated microscope system that produces a virtual odor environment to quantify behaviors and neural circuit activities of the nematode C elegans. In this system, C elegans is maintained in the view field of a calcium imaging microscope by an auto-tracking stage using a pattern-matching algorithm. Simultaneously, odor stimulus is controlled with sub-second and sub-µM precision to reproduce realistic temporal patterns. Using this system, we have found that two types of sensory neurons, ASH and AWB play significant roles in decision making for navigation in a repulsive odor gradient. Calcium imaging and optogenetic analysis revealed that temporal increments of repulsive odor activate ASH to trigger turns that randomize the migratory direction, while temporal decrements of the odor activate AWB to choose proper direction for straight migration. Further mathematical analysis indicated that these sensory neurons are not only antagonizing, but also cooperate with each other by responding to stimulation changes at different time scales. Using this method will lead to comprehensive understanding of cellular mechanisms of decision making in a simple neural circuit.

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