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Neural mechanism of voluntary movement and development of therapeutic approach

開催日 2014/9/11
時間 14:00 - 16:00
会場 Room B(501)
Chairperson(s) 山下 俊英 / Toshihide Yamashita (大阪大学大学院 医学系研究科 分子神経科学 / Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Japan)
星 英司 / Eiji Hoshi (東京都医学総合研究所 前頭葉機能プロジェクト / Frontal Lobe Function Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Japan)

Programming and reprogramming neuronal diversity in the cerebral cortex

  • S1-B-2-2
  • Paola Arlotta:1 
  • 1:Harvard University, Cambridge, USA 

The neocortex contains an unparalleled diversity of neuronal subtypes, each defined by distinct traits that are developmentally acquired under the control of several neuron subtype-specific and pan-neuronal genes. The regulatory logic that orchestrates the coordinated expression of these unique combinations of genes is not known for any class of cortical neurons. Here, we report on the identification of novel transcriptional dynamics underlying developmental generation of excitatory pyramidal neuron diversity in the cerebral cortex, and define some of the governing principles that shape the identity of one class of neurons, corticospinal motor neurons. In addition, we show that pyramidal neuron diversity impacts the behavior of other cell types during cortical development and discuss the critical effect on oligodendrocytes to guarantee generation of normal patterns of myelin distribution in different cortical layers. Once development is complete, it is well known that pyramidal neurons become permanently postmitotic and do not change their class-specific identity for the life span of the organism. We demonstrate that during a defined window of postmitotic development ("critical window of nuclear plasticity") pyramidal neurons can change their identity in vivo, acquiring critical features of alternate neuronal lineages. Collectively, we discuss the principles that govern development and reprogramming of neuronal diversity in the neocortex.

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