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Plenary Lectures

開催日 2014/9/13
時間 13:00 - 14:00
会場 Room A(Main Hall)
Chairperson(s) 尾藤 晴彦 / Haruhiko Bito (東京大学大学院医学系研究科 神経生化学分野 / Department of Neurochemistry, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine)

Optical deconstruction of fully-assembled biological systems

  • PL-3
  • Karl Deisseroth:1 
  • 1:Department of Bioengineering and Psychiatry, Stanford University, California, USA 

This talk will address optical tools for precise, high-resolution investigation of intact biological systems, and application of these tools to study the neural circuit underpinnings of adaptive and maladaptive behavior. Over the past decade our laboratory has created and developed both optogenetics (a technology for precisely controlling millisecond-scale activity patterns in specific cell types using microbial opsin genes and fiberoptic-based neural interfaces) and CLARITY (a technology to optically resolve high-resolution structural and molecular detail within intact tissues without disassembly). Most recently in optogenetics, our team has developed strategies for targeting microbial opsins and light to meet the challenging constraints of the freely-behaving mammal, engineered a panel of microbial opsin genes spanning a range of optical and kinetic properties, built high-speed behavioral and neural activity-readout tools compatible with real-time optogenetic control, disseminated the tools to thousands of investigators, and applied these optogenetic tools to develop circuit-based insight into anxiety, depression, and motivated behaviors. Distinct from optogenetics, our CLARITY technology can be used to transform intact biological tissue into a hybrid form in which components are removed and replaced with exogenous elements, resulting in a transparent tissue-hydrogel that both preserves, and makes accessible, struc¬tural and molecular information for visualization and analysis. With CLARITY, whole mouse brains have now been labeled and imaged, and molecular markers have been used to identify individual structures and projections in banked human brain tissue, thereby unlocking rich sources of information for probing disease mechanisms as well as the native structure and complexity of the nervous system, in a manner complementary to optogenetic approaches.

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